Jinguitou Fortress, the National designated monument- reference data The time of announcing the monument designation：
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- On January 28th, 2000 (ROC 89) Penghu County Government approved the site as a County designated monument.
On November 21st, 2001 (ROC 90) The Ministry of Interior approved the site as a National designated monument.
The Restoration Chronicle of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
April 16th,2004 (ROC 93) The startup of the research
August, 5th, 2011 (ROC 100) The startup of the planning and designing
June 6th, 2014 (ROC 103) The commencement of constructing Magong Jinguitou Fortress
January 25th, 2017 (ROC 106) The completion of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
Organizer: Penghu County Government
Implementer: The Cultural Affairs Bureau of Penghu County Government
Designer: Yang Ren Jiang Architectural Design Firm
Supervisor: Yang Ren Jiang Architectural Design Firm
Constructor: Peng Hsiung Construction Co., Ltd.
Construction: cost NT$ 31,579,031
The Cultural Heritage Value of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
1. It’s located in Magong Guitoushan, which is a joint grip with Fengguiwei (Snakehead Hill) of the entrance of Magong Port.
2.It was initially built in the Ming Zheng period, where Penghu Xincheng(澎湖新城) was built in Qing dynasty. In 1864 (Tongzhi 3), it was rebuilt and named Jinguitou Fortress.
3. In 1887 (Guangxu 13) after the Sino-French War ended, resulting with a defeat by the French, it was then rebuilt by Qing Garrison Commander Wu Hong-luo, and became one of the four major artillery forts built in the Qing dynasty.
4. It was the top major fortress on the Penghu Islands in the Japanese Colonial period, and it was one of the costal fortifications surrounded Magong Port.
5. It was equipped with the largest quantity of cannons in Penghu. At present, there are a few cannons being completely restored including 7-inch Armstrong’s breech loading pounders, 28-cm grenade launchers, 9-cm rapid fire cannons made of copper steel and US M1 40mm anti-aircraft cannons.
6. It reserves the entire military sites built from the Qing Reign period through the Japanese Colonial period to ROC Army period, which is the most famous fortification in the Penghu area to the tourists.
The History of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
In 1717 (Guangxu 56) The Governor Jeuluo Man-bao(覺羅滿保), the Grand Coordinator Chen Bin, Buzheng Administrator Sha Mu-ha(布政使沙木哈) built the Penghu Xinchen(澎湖新城) here.
In 1864 (Tongzhi 3), the Vice Brigadier General Wu Qi-xun rebuilt the fortress and named it Jinguitou Fortress.
In 1887 (Guangxu 13), after Sino-French war, the Qing Garrison Commander Wu Hong-luo was appointed by Liu Ming-chuan to rebuild the fort. It was one of the ten forts built by Liu Ming-chuan, who built ten forts located near the five estuaries in Penghu, Keelung, Hobe (Tamsui), Anping and Cihou.
In 1902 on May 20th, (Meiji 35) the Penghu Island office of the infantry construction division in the Imperial Japanese army started rebuilding the fort and completed the reconstruction on September 15th 1904 (Meiji 37), and renamed Tiannan Fortress, which was the important costal defense of Penghu Island.
In 1910 (Meiji 43), the usage of the fortress was changed to be a space for military defense drills. The reconstruction was started in 1911 (Meiji 44) in February and completed in March in the same year. After the World War II, it belonged to The Republic of China Armed Forces.
In 1950 (ROC 39), all the proprietary right of the fort was handed over to The Republic of China and under the authority of the Kaohsiung Office of the Real Property Management Division of Combined Logistics Command of Taiwan Province.
In 1965 (ROC 54), it was under the supervision of the Army Command Headquarters, and the Telecommunication office of Tiannan Camp of Penghu Defense Command was located here.
In 2000 (ROC 89), it was approved to be the County designated monument.
In 2001 (ROC 90), it was approved to be the National designated monument.
In the end of 2009 (ROC 98), the Penghu County Government has approved the change of its usage, so the Telecommunication office was withdrawn and the fortress was managed under the authority of Penghu County Government.
The Transition of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
During the Qing rule dynasty, the site has been rebuilt at least 6 times:
1. The 1st reconstruction of building Penghu Xichen: Two doors were built without any residents living inside. There were only military soldiers serving 24-hour shifts guarding the site.
2. The 2nd reconstruction of Jinguitou Fortress: The site equipped with cannons made of cast iron, was also named Fort du Nord by the French army.
3. The 3rd reconstruction of Jinguitou Fortress: The site was equipped with a 7-inch, a 10-inch, and a 12-inch Armstrong’s breech loading pounders, and an office with arched ceiling and a military barrack.
4. The 4th reconstruction of Tiannan Fortress: The fortress built in the Qing dynasty and the barrack remains were kept. A dormitory for guards was built at the outfield of the camp and equipped with two 9-cm rapid fire cannon and a weapons storage.
5. The 5th reconstruction of fortress for military drills: The equipped weapons were changed to two 10-inch Armstrong’s breech loading pounders. Also, the original 12-inch launcher was remodeled to a grenade launcher equipped with two Japanese 28-cm grenade dischargers.
6. The 6th reconstruction: The site became the Telecommunication office of Tiannan Camp of Penghu Defense Command.
The Artillery at the site of Magong Jinguitou Fortress
In the historical course, there were a total of 6 types of artilleries:
1. In 1864 (Tongzhi 3), the site was equipped with Chinese muzzle-loading cast-iron cannons.
2. 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch British Armstrong breech loading pounders
3. 28-cm grenade launchers
4. 9-cm rapid fire cannons made of copper steel
5. The Type 45 15cm cannons
6. USA M1 40mm anti-aircraft cannons